ChatGPT is a series of Internet tools based on ChatGPT technology (i.e., generative AI technology) that can derive a reinforcement learning application paradigm with digital content twin capabilities, digital editing capabilities, and digital creation capabilities, and based on human feedback. chatGPT can capture, process, and sublimate human knowledge and artificial content to produce digital content that can match and meet user needs, and become an intelligent cognitive understanding paradigm. ChatGPT has the same neutral characteristics as any technological tool, but in the context of international data ecological security governance, ChatGPT is used by state actors as an information tool for state actors to pursue power and interests in international anarchy, i.e., it has a "non-neutral The role of ChatGPT is "non-neutral". This is mainly manifested in two ways: first, based on ChatGPT technology, algorithmic technology powerhouses use algorithmic advantages to implement political intervention and infiltrate other countries' perceptions with the help of their control over information flow; second, the economic divide between developed and developing countries will be further widened and the gap in military power between them will be expanded due to the difference in algorithmic capabilities. In essence, the essence of ChatGPT's "non-neutral" role is the power contest, security game and interest struggle between state actors using new technology tools in the virtual cyberspace, which will have a profound impact on international data ecological security governance.
ChatGPT acts on international data ecological security governance mainly through three paths: individual, national and international system.
At the personal level, ChatGPT technology can subvert users' traditional cognition, interfere with users' decision-making behavior, and diminish their individual characteristics. The ChatGPT bot can save time and improve efficiency in decision-making behavior. However, at the same time, it can also reduce the subjectivity of users' decision-making behavior. In terms of characteristic behaviors, the degree of awareness of an issue by Internet users previously depended on the strength of their information retrieval ability. Generally speaking, the stronger the retrieval ability, the more information they are exposed to. However, with the application of ChatGPT technology, users are likely to use it as a single search tool due to its advantages over traditional web search tools, and answers generated based on the same database will produce the same answer to the same question, thus "erasing" the user's personality.
At the national level, the ability to influence foreign policy and change the logic of cultural communication, the increased power of technology companies has weakened the state's control over them. As a result of ChatGPT technology, the public no longer simply listens to foreign policy makers when narrating and analyzing events. Instead, foreign policy makers began to focus on the expression of people's opinions in cyberspace. Based on the logic of collective action, people have become freer and bolder in their human nature when using ChatGPT technology, even crossing security boundaries. At the same time, stimulated by information media, new technologies created by a particular company can spread around the world. As a result, this raises the question of the distribution of power between the state and other actors, based on the identity position of sub-state actors. Traditionally, AI tools are generally placed to operate in the overall context of national interest and security, where the state can effectively control their behavior. However, during the operation of ChatGPT, the content composition and operating context of its database will be updated in real time according to individual users and the overall data of the Internet, and in this process, its affiliated technology companies, such as OpenAI, will gain more direct control over the management of the data.
At the international system level, it can promote the distribution of authority levels, change national power standards, create new economic models, and call for relevant legal updates. In the past, the distribution model of global power in the Internet perspective was vertically ranked by the strength of Internet technology. However, with the widespread use of ChatGPT technology, the international authority structure is likely to change from a vertical to a horizontal ranking. At the same time, either type of technology platform reflects the characteristics of the creators themselves. A machine learning program characterized by English creation reflects the cultural values, mindsets, and political perceptions of its environment. In other words, the arrogance and prejudice of Western society, represented by the United States, will be equally present in the ChatGPT output. As a result, hegemonic states have the ability and intention to use chatbots as an ideological tool to consolidate their dominance in political and military fields. Therefore, new international norms are needed to limit ChatGPT and related behaviors and clarify the boundaries of behavior.
The butterfly effect of ChatGPT on international data ecological security is mainly manifested in three aspects: individual, national and international system.
From the individual level, the concept of data security is more open, data sharing behavior is more common, and the volume of data upload is more massive. In the process of using ChatGPT, users are more likely to contribute their own data to improve the efficiency and intelligence of ChatGPT use, and trust and reliance on the technology will generate a more open view of data security and produce data sharing behaviors with more security risks.ChatGPT technology has obvious relative advantages and a broad scope of application, although it can provide a new way for individuals and Although it can provide new tools for individual and group data decision-making, the logic of ChatGPT is that the process of using ChatGPT is also the process of uploading individual or group data information to its database. The longer users use ChatGPT, the more ChatGPT knows about them, which may intensify the risk of data leakage and subsequently affect personal data security and even the data ecological security of the country.
From the national level, the danger of confidential data leakage increases, the risk of political and cultural dissemination is greater, and the authority of technology companies is more prominent. Once ChatGPT is widely used in the foreign policy arena, its "double-edged sword" effect cannot be ignored. On the one hand, it can provide a large amount of analytical data for the development of foreign policy that is more suitable for national conditions and more relevant to the international situation, but we should see that the uploading of a large amount of relevant data to ChatGPT's database will increase the breadth and depth of the destructive data security negative phenomena, such as data leakage, and endanger national data ecological security. On the other hand, the innovative deep mining technology in ChatGPT's assistance in formulating foreign policy will largely enhance the efficiency of collecting and mining relevant information. However, some confidential data of a government that are difficult to be discovered may be discovered by other countries through ChatGPT's dynamic mining capability of real-time data across the Internet, thus jeopardizing national data security.
From the international system level, national data power is more decentralized, while international data power is more centralized, and the overall security posture is more severe. Under the current premise that ChatGPT technology and its database are available to various actors in the international community, ChatGPT is expected to change the previous measure of national power distribution in the Internet domain, as well as in the field of data security. The absolute authority of the state in the field of data security decreases. Currently, ChatGPT technology is in the hands of technology companies, but OpenAI is still under the jurisdiction of the U.S. government in a legal sense, so ChatGPT technology has also become a major source of power for the U.S. in the field of data security, and the absolute mastery of the U.S. authority in this field will pose an extremely unfair negative impact on the data ecological security of other countries.